Multiple Myeloma - Diagnosis & Treatment

How is multiple myeloma diagnosed? 

Diagnosis of multiple myeloma typically involves: 

  • Blood tests to detect abnormal levels of immunoglobulins 
  • Urine tests to detect abnormal proteins involving myeloma in the kidney 
  • Bone marrow biopsy to assess the extent of bone marrow involvement by myeloma cells 
  • Imaging studies, such as X-rays, MRI, PET or PET MRI scans to identify the extent of the bone involvement in the disease

How is multiple myeloma treated? 

Treatment for multiple myeloma may include: 

  • Targeted therapy, using drugs that specifically attack cancerous cells 
  • Immunotherapy, which helps the immune system recognize and fight the cancer cells 
  • Radiation therapy to reduce pain due to the disease 
  • Stem cell transplantation to eradicate the residual myeloma cells in the marrow and replace with healthier stem cells 
  • Medications to manage symptoms, such as bone pain and kidney problems 

The choice of treatment depends on various factors, including the patient's age, symptoms, and overall health. Early detection and individualised treatment plans are key to managing multiple myeloma effectively.

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